Introductory Practice Experience Course Competencies

Competency #1 – Drug Distribution Systems.

  1. Applies state and federal regulations in the dispensing process
  2. Determines need and factors for correctly using the medication
  3. Identifies drug costs to the patient
  4. Clarifies, adds and/or corrects prescription order information when necessary.
  5. Correctly labels and practices performing the final check.
  6. Correctly documents adverse drug events (ADE –includes actual and potential Adverse Drug Reactions(ADR) and errors) through the appropriate channels.
  7. Applies ordering, purchasing and inventory control principles.
  8. Abides by laws on storage and disposal of medication.

Competency #2 – Knowledge.

  1. Identifies generic names and dosage forms
  2. Discusses medication (OTC and/or prescription) mechanisms and use with preceptor and patient.
  3. Correctly completes calculation of problems related to dispensing.
  4. Discusses pathophysiology of disease(s).
  5. Synthesizes basic science and clinical information to appropriately identify patient problems
  6. Applies knowledge of the pathophysiology of a specific disease to prevent medication-related problems.

Competency #3 – Drug Therapy Evaluation and Development.

  1. Collects complete patient history, laboratory and physical exam data to identify problems.
  2. Identifies both actual and potential drug related problem stating rationale.
  3. Identifies problems that require emergency medical attention.

Competency #4 – Patient Communications.

  1. Introduces self as student from College of Pharmacy.
  2. Clarifies the purpose, benefit and structure of the interview.
  3. Verifies patient name and correct pronunciation, and demographic data
  4. Speaks clearly using proper enunciation, volume, and rate.
  5. Uses vocabulary and sentence structure appropriate for the understanding of the patient.
  6. Uses appropriate non-verbal communication.
  7. Provides accurate and pertinent information in appropriate detail.
  8. Determines patient level of understanding by asking questions.
  9. Demonstrates empathy and shows concern for patient well-being.

Competency #5 – Drug Information.

  1. Selects the best available resource for answering a drug related request.
  2. Generates correct answers to questions in a timely and systematic manner.
  3. Can define primary, secondary and tertiary references.
  4. Discusses the design, methodology, results, and conclusions of a given published study

Competency #6 – Formal Oral Presentations.

  1. Provides list of references that support an adequate review of the literature and utilizes time allotted for presentation efficiently and effectively.
  2. Utilizes audiovisual aids and technology that enhance delivery and understanding of the presentation.
  3. Demonstrates a knowledge base sufficient for the topic of discussion.

Competency #7 – Formal Written Presentations

  1. Utilizes correct spelling and grammar in written documents and provides a document of format and length that adheres to the parameters established by the Preceptor.
  2. Correctly uses the facts about the topic.
  3. Produces well organized document.
  4. Creates a written document which contains review of primary literature from reputable sources.

Competency #8 – Professional Team Interaction.

  1. Dresses appropriately for the setting.
  2. Demonstrates respect for other health care professionals.
  3. Actively participates in team activities.
  4. Interactions with the team are conducted with an appropriate level of confidence.
  5. Retrieves and evaluates new information for the purpose of responding to health care professional questions.

Competency #9 – Professionalism/Motivation and Cultural Sensitivity.

  1. Learns in a self-directed manner.
  2. Contributes to professional environment of the pharmacy.
  3. Identifies and respects the values of others.
  4. Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the pharmacist “Code of Ethics”.
  5. Incorporates ethical principle in decision making/practice.
  6. Demonstrates sensitivity to confidentiality issues.
  7. Attends and participates in all activities according to attendance policies.
  8. Is punctual for all activities.
  9. Completes assigned responsibilities on time.
  10. Assesses the religious and socio-economic value systems that affect need and adherence.

Competency #10 – Public Health

  1. Defines and assesses the health status of individuals and populations.
  2. Selects and implements strategies to prevent or detect disease in the target population.
  3. Collaborates with pertinent local and state organizations, health care providers and policy
  4. makers responsible for the development of the public health initiatives.

Competency #11 – Use and Management of Health Care System Resources

  1. Describes the objectives of health insurance and managed health care programs.
  2. Manages pharmacy operations.
  3. Manages personnel.
  4. Optimizes physical and technological resources required to fulfill the practice mission.
  5. Utilizes inventory control concepts to develop and implement an inventory control system.
  6. Participates in the process for reporting and managing medication errors.
  7. Participates in the process for conducting medication use evaluations.

Advanced Practice Experience Course Competencies
(modified SUCCESS evaluation described by Reid and colleagues)
Competency #1 – Design, selects, implement and/or manage drug distribution systems for various practice settings.

  1. Apply principles of civil law to the practice of pharmacy.
  2. Applies state and federal regulations in the dispensing process.
  3. Determines need and factors for correctly using the medication.
  4. Identifies drug cost.
  5. Clarifies, adds and/or corrects prescription order information when necessary.
  6. Correctly labels and performs the final check.
  7. Correctly documents adverse drug events (ADE including actual and potential Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) and errors through the appropriate channels.
  8. Applies ordering, purchasing and inventory control principles.
  9. Abides by laws on storage and disposal of medication.
  10. Implements strategies for medication error prevention.

Competency #2 – Drug and Disease State Knowledge

  1. Discusses pathophysiology of disease(s).
  2. Discusses medications’ mechanisms of action and use with preceptor and patient.
  3. Synthesizes basic science and clinical information to appropriately identify patient problems.
  4. Applies knowledge of the pathophysiology of a specific disease to prevent medication-related problems.

Competency #3 – Drug therapy evaluation and development

  1. Synthesizes information from patient, data from complete patient history and laboratory and physical exam data to identify problems.
  2. Identifies and suggests appropriate therapeutic endpoints for patient (cure, maintenance, or prophylaxis of disease).
  3. Identifies and prioritizes both actual and potential drug-related problems and suggests drug therapy changes based on progress towards endpoints.
  4. Identifies problems that require emergency medical attention.
  5. Physiologic differences used to develop a patient-specific monitoring plan.
  6. Designs and evaluates treatment regimens and monitoring plans for optimal outcomes using pharmacokinetic data and drug formulation data.
  7. Designs and evaluates treatment regimens for optimal outcomes using disease states and previous or current drug therapy as well as including psychosocial, ethical-legal, and financial data.
  8. Provides rationale for treatment regimen and monitoring plans with documentation from reliable sources.
  9. Assess the patient’s changing needs and develops backup plans based on anticipated problems with the primary plan.
  10. Provides written documentation of the patient-centered care plan that is clear, complete, and concise.
  11. Correctly completes calculation of problems related to dosing.

Competency #4 – Patient Case Presentations

  1. Patient cases are prepared in a timely manner.
  2. Follows patients and maintains information on number required by preceptor.
  3. Verbally presents data in an organized manner.
  4. Writes a chart note on patient and data is recorded and presented in an appropriate format.
  5. Uses appropriate verbal and nonverbal mannerisms during presentation.
  6. Communicates presentation clearly and in a tone and volume that is clearly understood.
  7. Able to answer questions about patients or disease states.

Competency #5 – Patient Interviews

  1. Introduces self as student from __________College of Pharmacy.
  2. Clarifies the purpose, benefit and structure of the interview.
  3. Verifies patient name and correct pronunciation, and demographic data.
  4. During an organized interview uses vocabulary and sentence structure appropriate for the understanding of the patient.
  5. Answers patient questions providing appropriate and correct data.

Competency #6 – Patient Education/Counseling

  1. Speaks clearly using proper enunciation, volume, and rate.
  2. Uses appropriate non-verbal communication.
  3. Provides accurate and pertinent information in appropriate detail.
  4. Includes information required for the patient’s social and financial needs.
  5. Determines patient level of understanding by asking questions.
  6. Provides the patient with strategies to reduce potential medication errors.
  7. Shows empathy and concern for patient well-being.

Competency #7 – Drug Information

  1. Selects the best available resource for answering a drug related request.
  2. Demonstrates the ability to use appropriate sources of information
  3. Generates correct answers to questions in a timely and systematic manner.
  4. Can define primary, secondary and tertiary references.
  5. Is able to discuss the organization and operation of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (or its equivalent depending on the site). (Specific responsibilities would include formulary management and drug usage evaluation process).
  6. Demonstrates the ability to interpret descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests using assessment tools commonly reported in medical and pharmaceutical literature.
  7. Critically analyzes the design, methodology, results, and conclusions of a given published study.
  8. Compares and contrasts the approaches to clinical practice guideline (CPG) development and the concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM).
  9. Retrieves and evaluates new information for the purpose of responding to patient questions.

Competency #8 – Formal Oral Presentations

  1. Delivers a content correct presentation, provides list of references that support an adequate review of the literature based on assignment parameters.
  2. Uses appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication skills (inclusive of body language).
  3. Utilizes audiovisual aids and technology that enhance delivery and understanding of the presentation.
  4. Generates feedback from the audience by asking questions.
  5. Demonstrates a knowledge base sufficient for the topic of discussion.

Competency #9 – Formal Written Presentations

  1. Utilizes correct spelling and grammar in written document and the document is the appropriate length.
  2. Facts about the topic are correct.
  3. Presentation of the topic is organized.
  4. Creates a written document which contains a review of primary literature from reputable sources.

Competency #10 – Professional team interaction

  1. Dresses appropriately for the setting.
  2. Demonstrates sensitivity for patients and families during or outside of team activities.
  3. Demonstrates respect for other health care professionals.
  4. Uses interpersonal communication skills to facilitate team interactions.
  5. Actively participates in health care team activities.
  6. Assists team members in establishing therapeutic, medication safety and/or diagnostic objectives.
  7. Uses documentation, persuasion, and alternative suggestions to resolve therapeutic and medication safety disagreements.
  8. Provides accurate, organized, and pertinent drug and patient information relevant to the team’s current or future tasks.
  9. Follows up on questions asked by the team in a timely fashion.
  10. Interactions with the team are conducted with an appropriate level of confidence.
  11. Retrieves and evaluates new information for the purpose of responding to health care professional questions.

Competency #11 – Professionalism/Motivation/Cultural Sensitivity

  1. Identifies and respects the values of others.
  2. Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the pharmacist “code of ethics.”
  3. Defends ethical decisions through analysis of ethical principles.
  4. Demonstrates sensitivity to confidentiality issues.
  5. Attends and participates in all activities according to attendance policies.
  6. Is punctual for all activities.
  7. Completes assigned responsibilities (including patient care responsibilities) on time.
  8. Accommodates a change in workflow without disruption of work schedule.
  9. Initiates additional learning opportunities.
  10. Synthesizes new information in order to draw conclusions or hypotheses, or decide a course of action.
  11. Assesses the cultural, religious and socioeconomic value systems that affect need and adherence.

Competency #12 – Public Health

  1. Assesses the needs of a target population relative to disease prevention/detection.
  2. Possesses the knowledge, skills and behaviors required to identify communication tools to accommodate a culturally diverse population.
  3. Selects and implements an appropriate strategy to prevent (i.e. immunizations) or detect (i.e. blood cholesterol screening) disease in a target population
  4. Collaborates with pertinent local and state organizations, health care providers and policy makers responsible for the development of the public health initiatives.

Competency #13 – Use and Management of Health Care System Resources

  1. Participates in the use of health insurance and managed health care programs.
  2. Manages pharmacy operations.
  3. Manages personnel.
  4. Optimizes physical and technological resources required to fulfill the practice mission.
  5. Utilizes inventory control concepts to develop and implement an inventory control system.
  6. Participates in the process for reporting and managing medication safety.
  7. Participates in the process for conducting medication use evaluations.
  8. Participates in the development and implementation of a formulary system.
  9. Discusses leadership and strategic planning in pharmacy operations.